structure of DiOC6 (MW 572)
Visualisation of low-oxygen response in tobacco cell mitochondria (Van Gestel and Verbelen 2002).


3,3'-dihexyloxa carbocyanine iodide


  • endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope (at higher concentration, 2 µg/ml)
  • mitochondria (at lower concentration, 0.2 µg/ml)
  • both as vital dye or after fixation

chemical properties:

  • MW 572
  • purchasable by Molecular Probes (Thermo Fisher) or Sigma-Aldrich
  • stock solution: 2 mg of DiOC6 in 5 µl DMSO, fill up with 950 µl of water (1:1000)


  • stain for 10 min, wash out unbound dye with distilled water.
  • Can be infiltrated into leaves by syringe.
  • phototoxic, in living cells observable only for a short time
  • preserves dynamics even of cortical ER, if applied properly at low laser power
  • excitation at 488 nm, fluorescence at 520 nm (FITC or GFP filter set)


  • Martens et al. (2006) Quantification of Plasmodesmatal Endoplasmic Reticulum Coupling between Sieve Elements and Companion Cells Using Fluorescence Redistribution after Photobleaching.
  • Quader H, Hofmann A, Schnepf E (1989) Reorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum in epidermal cells of onion bulb scales after cold stress: involvement of cytoskeletal elements. Planta 177: 273–280
  • Van Gestel K, Verbelen JP (2002) Giant mitochondria are a response to low oxygen pressure in cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)