What we expect you to know


You should know, what these terms mean and you should be able to explain them in your own words.

Malthus . Kropotkin . coevolution . parasitism . symbiosis . Lotka-Volterra equations . saprotrophic . necrotrophic . biotrophic . root nodules . mycorriza . hypersensitive response (HR) . gene-for-gene hypothesis . induced versus innate immunity . elicitors . virulence genes . avirulence genes . PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity). effector-triggered immunity (ETI) .  volatiles . terpenoids . flavonoids . stilbenes . Downy Mildew . Powdery Mildew . chemotaxis

08: Coevolution of Plants with Ecosystems

1. Bees are highly cooperative - even to the level of sacrificing their life for the bee state, when they sting an invader and die. There is a genetic reason that favoured the rapid evolution of cooperativity in bees. Do you know, which one?

2. Why is innate immunity acting faster than induced immunity?

3. Biotrophic pathogens have evolved effectors to overcome PTI. Why did the more simple possibility that pathogens loose the PAMPs triggering PTI not evolve?

4. A study using the molecular marker internally transcribed spacer 1 (its1) was conducted to analyse the genetic diversity of Plasmopara viticola in different regions of the world: A. East of the USA (the region of origin), B. France, C. China, D. Chile, E. South Africa. What is your prediction about the level of genetic diversity in these five regions?