Glossar Fluoreszenzmikroskopie und Fluoreszente Sonden

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ENG D Bedeutung
artifact Artefakt (arte factum) False experimental data produced by problems of methodology or equipment
Bimodal Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Fluoreszenz-Komplementierung

Fluorescence produced by two interaction partners fused to the two halves of a split YFP

biolistics Biolistik

from Bio-Ballistics, shooting foreign DNA into cells (can be transient or stable, depending on the vector)

bioluminescence Biolumineszenz Conversion of chemical energy into light (does not require excitation!), e.g. Aequorin
BODIPY BODIPY Boron-DiPyrrromethene based fluorochromes with superior optical properties
codon usage bias Codonasymmetrie Asymmetric occurrence of the different tRNAs conjugated to a given amino acid residue, organism-specific
dichroitic mirror, beam splitter dichroitischer Spiegel, Farbteiler Filter that reflects or transmits light depending on wavelength
diffraction Brechung Change in the direction of a light beam upon transition between different optical density (diffraction index)
diffraction limit Auflösungsgrenze The smallest distance that can be resolved by light microscopy. According to Abbé's Law this limit is defined as ratio of wavelength by numerical aperture.
DR5 DR5 Minimal auxin-responsive promotor made of a 5' mutation of auxin-response element D1-4 of the gene GH3
emission Emission Generation of light by an excited fluorochrome by transition from the singulet back to the ground state
epifluorescence Auflicht-Fluoreszenz Microscopical set-up, where the excitation light is administered through the objective to the specimen
evanescent field evaneszentes Feld Generation of a weak wave-front during total reflection at the border between different diffraction indices
excitation Anregung Transition of a fluorescent molecule from the ground state into the singulet-state by absorption of a photon
fluorochrome Fluoreszenzfarbstoff Molecule that is excited for fluorescence in the visible range
FRAP Fluoreszenz-Regenerierung Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching - approach to measure protein dynamics by bleaching a ROI
FRET Förster-Resonanz stands for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (irradition-free energy transfer between a pair of fluorochromes)
numerical aperture numerisches Apertur product of sin a (opening angle of objective) and diffraction index n (1 for air, 1.41 for glass)
optical tweezers optische Pinzette manipulation of small structures by a strong laser beam, based on gradients in diffractive index
photoactivable lichtaktivierbar Fluorochrome, where fluorescence properties can be switched by light different from fluorescence
pinhole Lochblende Small hole in confocal laser microscopy filtering light depending on its geometrical relation with the focal plane
probe Sonde

Specific molecules that are used to investigate a specific biological process

ratio-Imaging Verhältnis-Abbildung Approach in quantitative image analysis, where pixel intensities obtained at two emission wavelengths are divided to remove the influence of intensity changes not caused by the fluorochrome of interest
reporter Reportergen Gene that is easily detected and reports the activitiy of the promotor under whose control it was placed
ROI Zielregion Region of interest which is in the focus of investigation
SEM REM Scanning Electron Microscopy, the surface of a sample is scanning using the signal of backscattered electrons
STED STED stands for stimulated emission depletion, a specimen is excited by a laser and the excitation is quenched by a second laser. Due to interference of the laser waves, it is possible to generate an excitation spot that is smaller than the diffraction limit
SIM strukturierte Beleuchtung approach to use interference patterns for excitation that can be smaller than the diffraction limit.
Stokes-Shift Stokes-Verschiebung In fluorescence shift of the emitted light to lower energy (longer wavelength), caused by dissipation of heat during transition between different singulet states
STORM STORM stands for 3D stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, approach to reconstruct the exact position beyond the diffraction limt by using temporal information of a photoactivable fluorochrome.
TIRF TIRF stands for total-internal reflection microscopy using the fact that an evanescent field can penetrate only a very short distance into the sample such that only the uppermost 50-100 nm are excited.
two-Photon Laser Zweiphotonenlaser two coupled lasers of low energy are focussed such that energy is added up in the focus site
visualise / visualize markieren to render a protein or structure visible, usually by specific labels